Embolization is a procedure to block a blood vessel. It is done to stop severe bleeding. Or it is done to stop blood flow to a part of the body. To do this, a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is put into a blood vessel through a small incision. It is often done by a doctor called an interventional radiologist. This procedure may be done alone, or with surgery or other treatment.
Why catheter embolization is done
The procedure may be done to:
- Control bleeding in an emergency
- Block blood flow to a cancerous tumor
- Block blood flow to a uterine fibroid
- Treat arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain and body
Risks of catheter embolization
Risks depend upon the part of the body being treated. Talk to your radiologist. Risks include:
- Blood clots, damage to an artery, stroke, or death
- Infection or bruising around the catheter insertion site
- Problems due to contrast medium, including allergic reaction or kidney damage
- The chance that the embolic agent could lodge in the wrong place and deprive normal tissue of its oxygen supply
For uterine fibroid embolization risks include:
- Cessation of menstrual cycles (rare)
- May affect future fertility
Preparing for the procedure
You will be told how to prepare for your procedure. Follow these instructions carefully. Also do the following:
- Do not to eat or drink for several hours before the procedure, as instructed by your doctor.
- Tell the doctor:
- What medications you take. This includes herbs and supplements.
- If you are pregnant or may be pregnant.
- If you are allergic to contrast medium (X-ray dye) or other medications.
During the procedure
Before the procedure begins, you will be given a sedative to make you relaxed and sleepy. Or you will be given general anesthesia to put you in a deep sleep through the procedure. Local anesthetic is also used. This blocks pain at the site where the catheter is inserted. The procedure is then begun.
- A small incision is made over the insertion site. A catheter is put into the blood vessel. It is then moved to the area to be treated.
- Contrast medium is injected through the catheter. This makes the artery and catheter stand out on X-ray pictures. The movement of the catheter is then watched on a video screen.
- A material or medication is sent through the catheter. It goes to the treatment site.
- The procedure is repeated in each blood vessel that needs to be blocked.
- The catheter is then removed. Firm pressure is put on the insertion site for about 15 minutes to stop bleeding.
After the procedure
You will need to lie flat with your leg straight for several hours. You may go home the same day. Or you may stay in the hospital or surgery center one or more nights. Follow any instructions you have been given about recovering at home.