Abdominal Pain in ChildrenChildren often complain of a "tummy ache." This is pain in the stomach or belly. Abdominal pain is very common in children. In many cases there's no serious cause. But stomach pain can sometimes point to a serious problem, such as appendicitis, so it is important to know when to seek help.
Causes of abdominal pain
Abdominal pain in children can have many possible causes. Any problem with the stomach or intestines can lead to abdominal pain. Common problems include constipation, diarrhea, or gas. Infection of the appendix (appendicitis) almost always causes pain. An infection in the bladder or urinary tract, or even infection in the throat or ear, can cause a child to feel pain in the belly. And eating too much food, food that has gone bad, or food that the child has a hard time digesting can lead to abdominal pain. For some children, stress or worry about some upcoming event, such as a test, causes them to feel real pain in their bellies.
Call 911 or go to the emergency room
Consider it an emergency if your child:
- Has blood or pus in vomit or diarrhea, or has green vomit
- Shows signs of bloating or swelling in the belly
- Repeatedly arches his back or draws his or her knees to the chest
- Has increased or severe pain
- Is unusually drowsy, listless, or weak
- Is unable to walk
When to call the healthcare provider
Children may complain of a tummy ache for many reasons. Many cases can be soothed with rest and reassurance. But if your child shows any of the symptoms listed below, call the healthcare provider:
- Abdominal pain that lasts longer than 2 hours.
- In an infant under 3 months old, a rectal temperature of 100.4?F (38?C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider
- In a child of any age, fever that rises repeatedly above 104?F (40?C), or as directed by your healthcare provider
- A fever that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under 2 years old, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older
- Your child has had a seizure caused by the fever
- Inability to keep even small amounts of liquid down.
- Signs of dehydration, such as no urine output for more than 8 hours, dry mouth and lips, and feeling very tired.
- Pain during urination.
- Pain in one specific area, especially low on the right side of the belly.
Treating abdominal pain
If a healthcare provider's attention is needed, he or she will examine the child to help find the cause of the pain. Certain causes, such as appendicitis or a blocked intestine, may need emergency treatment. Other problems may be treated with rest, fluids, or medicine. If the healthcare provider can't find a physical reason for your child's pain, he or she can help you find other factors, such as stress or worry, that might be making your child feel sick. At home, you can help the child feel better by doing the following:
- Have your child lie face down if he or she appears to be suffering from gas pain.
- If your child has diarrhea but is hungry, feed him or her a regular diet, but avoid fruit juice or soda. These are high in sugar and can worsen diarrhea. Sports drinks such as electrolyte solutions also may contain lots of sugar, so be sure to read labels. Water is fine.
- Avoid severely limiting your child's diet. Doing so may cause the diarrhea to last longer.
- Have your child take any prescribed medicines as directed by your healthcare provider.
- Check with your healthcare provider before giving your child any over-the-counter medicines.
Preventing abdominal pain
If your child is prone to abdominal pain, the following things may help:
- Keep track of when your child gets the pain. Make note of any foods that seem to cause stomach pain.
- Limit the amount of sweets and snacks that your child eats. Feed your child plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Limit the amount of food you give your child at one time.
- Make sure your child washes his or her hands before eating.
- Don't let your child eat right before bedtime.
- Talk with your child about anything that may be causing him or her worry or anxiety.