Knee problems can often be diagnosed and treated with a technique called arthroscopy. This type of surgery is done using an instrument called an arthroscope (scope). Only a few small incisions are needed for this surgery. The procedure can be used to diagnose a knee problem. In many cases, treatment can also be done using arthroscopy.
The scope allows the doctor to look directly into the knee joint. It is about the size of a pencil and contains a pathway for fluids. It also contains coated glass fibers that beam an intense, cool light into the knee joint. A camera is attached to the scope as well. It provides clear images of most areas in your knee joint. The doctor views these images on a monitor.
Preparing for the procedure
- Have lab or other testing done as advised.
- Tell your doctor about any medicines or supplements you take
- Do not eat or drink anything for 10 hours before the procedure.
- Once you arrive for surgery, you will be given an IV line in your arm or hand. This provides fluids and medicines.
- To keep you free of pain during the surgery, you'll receive medicine called anesthesia. You may have:
- General anesthesia. This puts you into a deep sleep during the surgery.
- Regional anesthesia. This numbs the body from the waist down.
- Local anesthesia. This numbs just the knee.
In addition to regional or local anesthesia, you may receive sedation. This medicine makes you relaxed and sleepy during the surgery.
- A few small incisions (portals) are made in your knee.
- The scope is inserted through one of the portals.
- Sterile fluid is put into the knee joint. This makes it easier to see and work inside your joint.
- Using the scope, the doctor confirms the type and degree of knee damage. If possible, the problem is treated at this time. This is done using surgical tools put through the other portals.
- When the surgery is done, all tools are removed. The incisions are closed with sutures, staples, surgical glue, or strips of surgical tape.
Risks and complications of arthroscopy
All surgeries have risks. The risks of arthroscopy include:
- Blood clots
- Swelling and stiffness of the knee
- Injury to normal tissue
- Continuing knee problems